The various practices for the prevention of disease in ancient and modern times
Prevention in Ancient times :
In ancient times, some of the practices adopted in ancient India which could minimize infections. They were, for example, washing of hands before and after meals, daily bathing, not carrying footwear into living rooms, denial of permission to enter place where food is cooked, especially for persons who have not had a bath. These practices must have evolved through observation, over a long period, that certain practices helped in preventing diseases. Isolation of mother and the new born, soon after delivery, was a common custom which also helped in preventing infection of the mother and the baby. Many of these laws of personal hygiene were codified by Manu.
Excavation of Mohenjo – daro and Harappa have revealed the existence of a covered drainage system and water supply. Similarly ancient civilisations of Egypt, Greece and China had medical systems. Egyptians had arrangements for public baths and underground drainage. The use of mosquito nets and association of plague with rats were known to then. The ancient Indian and Chinese system of medical care knew about immunisation also. Inoculation with live small pox germs to prevent small pox was known to them.
Prevention in Modern Times :
People returning from a trip to USA. Europe or Japan undoubtedly are very fascinated and narrate modern technological advances. Another aspect they often remark on is the cleanliness observed in their cities. Revolution, working class people of western countries lived in extremely filthy conditions. Piles of refuse in front of houses, lack of sewerage, slaughter houses full of files, etc. were similar to what we witness in the old crowded areas of Indian cities and in most our villages today.
During the Industrial Revolution in Europe, a close connection between disease and sanitary conditions was demonstrated. Outbreak of epidemic diseases like cholera was very common. It was observed that labourers suffered a far higher incidence of disease than the middle and upper classes. A major epidemic of cholera occured in 1832 in England. In 1848, England promulgated its Public Health Act, which defined the role of the state in peoples health and led to a great awareness about sanitary matters. In 1875, the Public Health Act defined the steps for a clean environment and for clean water. Other European countries and America suit. Steps were taken to ensure clean water, surrounding, houses and for control of offensive trades, such as carrying of garbage. In this way, the spread of many diseases was controlled to a great extent.
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Enumerate the various practices for the prevention of disease in ancient and modern times.
In ancient times, some of the practices adopted in ancient India which could minimize infections, the various practices for the prevention of disease in ancient and modern times